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Conference papers & articles




Gamification in Concept Design, International Design Week, Melbourne, April 2014

Design Criteria and Their Coupling in Concept Synthesis, Design Ed Asia Conference 2013

Design & Business Model Experimentation, ICED13, Seoul, August 2013

Crowdsourcing in Design Research - Potentials & Limitations, ICED13, Seoul, August 2013

Strategies for Bridging Business and Design, Innovation (IDSA), June 2013

Improving Collaborative Concept Evaluation using the Concept Aspect Profile Method, AIM, October 2012 - Emerald

Design Insights from User Research & Crowdsourcing, DMI Review, August 2012 - white-papers@ingomar.net

Design and The U.S. Economy. Presentation and panel discussion at the National Science Foundation CMMI Conference, Boston, July 2012 - The Huffington Post

Applying Design to Advance Art, Association of American Geographers Annual Meeting, New York, February 2012

Improving Collaborative Concept Evaluation using Concept Aspect Profile Method PDMA Academic Research Forum, Phoenix, October 2011

Inspiring Design – Informed by Metrics, Design Management Journal, June 2011 - white-papers@ingomar.net

Profit from Design - leveraging design in business, Amazon, August 2011

Business Plans Informed by Design, ICED11, Copenhagen, August 2011 - white-papers@ingomar.net

Design Driven Portfolio Management, ICED11, Copenhagen, August 2011 - white-papers@ingomar.net

What Designers Can Learn from Artists & Architects About the Philosophy within Conceptualization, Harvey Mudd Design Workshop, Claremont, May 2011 - white-papers@ingomar.net

Design Briefing for Emotions & Meaning, 7th International Conference on Design & Emotion, Chicago, October 2010 - white-papers@ingomar.net

Developing an Inspirational Design Brief, International Design Conference 2010, Dubrovnik, May 2010 - white-papers@ingomar.net

Quantification of Comprehensive Design-Augmented Brand Value, Informs Conference, San Diego, October 2009 - white-papers@ingomar.net

Design Quantification, ICED09 Stanford, August 2009 - Design Society

Design Thinking Imbedded in Products, ICED09 Stanford, August 2009- Design Society

Design Thinking Affect on Design Quality, as Defined by Design Award Reception, ICED09 Stanford, August 2009 - Design Society

The Cultural Dimension in the Design Process, IDDS Summit Massachusetts Institute of Technology, July 2007 - white-papers@ingomar.net

Sustainability in Design Argumentation, Cleantech Conference, May 2007 - white-papers@ingomar.net

The IDEA Award as a Design Quality Metrics: Part-A, Driving Web Citations and Public Awareness, ICED07 Paris, August 2007 - Design Society

The IDEA Award as a Design Quality Metrics: Part-B, Predicting Investor Valuation, ICED07 Paris, August 2007 - Design Society

Design Argumentation Profile: A quantitative decision support framework for concept evaluation in the early product development phase, ICED05, Melbourne, August 2005 - white-papers@ingomar.net

Biomimicry, presented to the Smithsonian Institute, August 2003

Inspiring Design – Informed by Metrics Although the design brief has been a staple of the design process for decades, many designers report that as a tool for launching the development of a new product, it is not particularly useful. In most cases, the commissioner of a design project develops a brief that is then handed off to a designer or a design group. The designer is then expected to interpret the brief into powerful and innovative design concepts for review, testing, and further development.

What you’ll hear most often from the head of the design project is
that the brief lacks clarity and gives no clues to what the team should be trying to achieve. Clients will often say,“Show me a bunch of concepts and when I see the right one, I’ll let you know.” It’s hit or miss, a game of chance at best. There are a number of reasons for this failure, but clearly the project commissioner’s lack of experience in writing design briefs, and a lack of designer input within the brief development process, are two of the most important.

However, when design briefs are well executed, they provide
effective framing for the creative team, which in turn helps the team to conceive concepts for an otherwise unimaginable future.

Business Plans Informed by Design Today the value created by applying design at a business model and innovation level as opposed to a design and process level is marginal. Interviews with product developers from academia and industry suggest this is due to a lack of design perspective when formulating and evaluating business plans. To remedy this, we propose including Design Quality Criteria drivers in the formulation of business plans. While auditing entrepreneurial business plans and design briefs content gaps were revealed between them. Strategy and context differences as well as a negative correlation between investors’ business plan valuation and the plans process content were found. This suggests that investors prefer plans with strategy and context descriptions to plans with high or unknown execution risk. We also found significant differences in structure and innovation content for the following polar opposite innovation types. These were the design of products based on sustainable and on disruptive technologies. In conclusion, we recommend a procedure to align and translate business plan content into inspirational design briefs for enhancing design concept synthesis performance.
Design Driven Portfolio Management Design practice and anecdotal evidence point to the existence of a chasm between business plan generation and the execution of new product development. The failure to including vital industrial design criteria in business plans prevents portfolio managers from managing execution risk effectively. At the same time, the gap between design team and portfolio manager hinders the communication of theses criteria to the design team. Especially in terms of concept synthesis, this omission may jeopardize the project execution and ultimately its success.
Competitive design concepts, concepts that cross that chasm, are well informed by business plans and consist of a comprehensive industrial design philosophy and results in a well balanced design discourse. Based on literature review and interviews with leading firms, we have established a best practice for design briefing and formulated the Design Driven Portfolio Management method. This method comprehensively evaluates, maps and communicates business and industrial design opportunities throughout the organization. The validity of the approach is established by applying the method to leading firms’ innovations. We chose polar opposite innovation types: The design of products based on sustainable and disruptive technologies as test cases. Based on our observations, we can conclude that design brief content and concept performance correlate with innovation types and can be mapped and managed using the Design Driven Portfolio Management method.
What Designers Can Learn from Artists & Architects About the Philosophy within Conceptualization NA.
Design Briefing for Emotion & Meaning Industrial Design that incorporates meaning and emotions is becoming an important strategic differentiator in offerings. Integrating these elements in the synthesis of concepts requires the upfront inclusion of these elements in the design briefing. The approach developed here is inspired by findings from psychiatry and branding. Applying Design Quantification, a matrix is constructed for systematic inclusion of meaning and emotion in the content of the design briefing. To avoid exceeding designers’ cognitive abilities to synthesize concepts, an appropriate balance for inclusion of these elements is examined. An estimate of appropriate content of meaning and emotions is accomplished though auditing state-of-the-art proposals for integration opportunities. Applying Design Quantification, engineering and industrial design focused proposals are analyzed, revealing important inclusion of and co-dependencies between traditional Design Quality Criteria. The results become recommended guidelines for balancing the content in a design briefing, thereby, effectively supporting the integration of meaning and emotion in offerings.
Developing an Inspirational Design Brief Design research has identified a set of Design Quality Criteria, which provides lead indicators for products’ market success. Mapping success criteria from business and design literature to the Design Quality Criteria reveals major gaps in the briefing process. Opportunity for improving the design briefing was then explored by auditing design proposals from industry. Findings showed significant relationships between proposals’ Design Quality Criteria content and project control. Based on the findings an Inspirational Design Brief was developed improving concepts synthesis performance.
Quantification of Comprehensive Design-Augmented Brand Value
Design Quantification Introduction of new products are vital to companies, however costly and fail at an alarming rate. There is therefore a tremendous need for early predicting both consumer acceptance and the financial potential of a concept. This presents an opportunity for establishing internal metrics to evaluate the relative strength of proposed product concepts. The following interviews with designers and engineers assist in defining the challenge and research questions. Can concepts, design and a product’s overall external performance be quantified? If so, can a chain of connections link concept quality to external performance? Frameworks for designers’ verbal concept arguments are explored and the Concept Aspect Model is constructed for evaluating concepts. To evaluate a final product’s design quality, the Design Quality Criteria is aggregated from literature and design awards. In the marketplace, external performance metrics for products are identified for general public awareness and investor’s expectations. An assessment of the current decision-process is made, which in conjunction with the first findings provides insight into an impact and roadmap. In conclusion, five aspects of concept arguments are found to correlate with the identified key external success metrics.
Design Thinking Imbedded in Products This study addresses new decision-making methods for concept selection within industrial design. For this purpose a framework capturing key user – product – provider aspects is developed, organizing designer’s verbally expressed design-arguments. The pattern observed during initial testing is consistent with the authors’ experiences from design consulting, encouraging further refinement and exploration. Based on the gained experience, the Concept Aspect Model is revised and a strategy is devised for further validation and connection of verbal design arguments with relevant external performance metrics.
Design Thinking Affect on Design Quality Does a product’s success truly rely on design quality and how does design quality correlate to the strength of a designers’ concept-arguments? A possible correlation between the Concept Aspect Profile (CAPArg) measuring designers’ verbal arguments, Industrial Design Excellence Award (IDEA) reception and external performance metrics was examined to answer these questions. A Concept Impact-Model was constructed to capture the relationships between variables and using this model, the quality of the decision process behind the IDEA Award was examined for decision-quality, thereby determining reliability of the IDEA Jury as a link. Then, IDEA Award application forms were coded, using a Concept Aspect Profile CAPIDEA and the baseline was compared with the Concept Aspect Profile for concept argument interviews, CAPArg. Once a strong correlation was detected, professional designers then rated IDEA Award performers according to the Design Quality Criteria. This established a designer’s ability to recognize quality in four out of six criteria, supporting the validity of an objective juries ability to discern design quality. The research question is hereby answered in that the quantity of characteristic aspects in a design argument can act as a predictor of design award reception of external performance as measured by stock value and Web Citations.
The Cultural Dimension in the Design Process NA.
Sustainability in Design Argumentation Develop a methodology for evaluating a design argument’s focus on sustainability, combined with a metric, forecasting the final concept’s triple bottom-line sustainability performance.
Driving Web Citations and Public Awareness Today, the resulting concepts from the conceptual phase are evaluated according to pre-established product criteria. These criteria fail to articulate and measure a concepts industrial design aspects, - leaving selection prone to subjectivity and decision bias, resulting in high failure rates among newly launched products. This body of work represents a portion of a developing methodology, connecting a designer’s descriptions of their design to performance metrics in the market place. This is achieved using IDEA awards as a bridge between designer arguments, as captured by the Concept Aspect Profile, and general market awareness concerning a product. The research establishes that products with a high degree of design quality, as measured by the Industrial Design Excellence Award (IDEA Award) criteria, result in a ten times higher general awareness among users than non-qualifying products. Within Gold, Silver and Bronze winners there also exists a ranking and Gold winners have a seventy-six percent chance of obtaining more general awareness than Silver winners.
Predicting Investor Valuation Decision-making in the conceptual phase of product development is prone to subjectivity and decision bias, leading to high failure rates among newly launched products. This work represents a portion of a developing methodology, connecting designer’s argumentation to performance metrics in the market place using the IDEA award as a bridge. This paper focuses on establishing a connection between IDEA award recipient and investors expectations of the product, as measured by the stock price of the corresponding company. The research establishes that products with a high degree of design quality, as measured by the Design Excellence Award (IDEA Award) criteria, do poorly the year of award reception. However, the following year, these same products exceeded the performance of the prior two years. Observed over a four and a half-year period (2000 – 2005), the award winning product’s companies outperformed the S&P500 by thirty-two percent (approximately 6.5% per year).
Design Argumentation Profile NA.

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